Glossary for Pest-Control and Management

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Abdomen — On insects, the third or last molar body region which has spiracles on most segments.

Active ingredient — The component in a pesticide product which kills pests or affects pest behavior.

Adult — A sexually mature and fully grown arthropod which, in most species, is incapable of further growth.

Aerosols — Ready-to-use pesticide formulations which contain an active ingredient, solvent, and propellant.

Allergy — A sensitivity reaction, e.g., asthma, which develops after an initial exposure to a proteinaceous substance.

Anaphylactic — A hypersensitivity reaction to proteins and other substances which, upon a second exposure, can cause life threatening conditions.

Antigen — A proteinaceous substance which causes an allergic reaction.

Antenna (-ae) — The paired segmented sensory structures on the head of an insect; located above the mouthparts and near the eye.

Anterior — In front; before; front.

Arthropod — An invertebrate animal which has a segmented body and jointed appendages; member of the phylum arthropoda.

Bacterium (-a) — Single-celled microorganisms which have no chlorophyll and which multiply by simple division. Some cause diseases and death in insects.

Bait —A pesticide formulation which contains water or food attractant and an active ingredient.

Capitate —A form of insect antenna which is expanded into a head at the tip.

Carton — In Formosan termites, the nest material composed of partially digested wood and soil cemented together with secretions and fecal material.

Caste — In social insects, a group of individuals which have a common functional characteristic, e.g., worker, soldier, and reproductive.

Cephalothorax — Anterior body region in some arthropods in which the head and thorax are fused.

Cercus (cerci) — In some arthropods, a pair of segmented appendages located on the dorsal side and tip of the abdomen.

Chelicera (-ae) — The paired, typically fang-like anterior protections on many arachnids.

Chitin synthesis inhibitor —A chemical which affects the formation of the insect’s exoskeleton and causes death during the molting process.

Clavate — A form of insect antenna which is expanded into a club at the tip.

Cocoon — The silken covering over the pupa which is woven by the last instar larva.

Collophore — In springtoils, the tube-like structure located on the under side of the first abdominal segment.

Commensal — Refers to rodents which live in close association with humans.

Complete metamorphosis — In insects, the developmental life cycle consisting of egg, several larval stages, pupa, and adult.

Compound eye — This type of eye is composed of many individual cells, each having its own facet on the surface.

Coxa —The first leg segment attached to the ventral surface of the thorax.

Crochets — Small hook-like structures found on the underside of the pro-legs on moth and butterfly larvae (caterpillars).

Cuticle — The thin three-layer outer surface of the exoskeleton.

Delusory parasitosis — An individual’s imaginary belief that their body is infested with insects.

Deutonymph — In ticks and mites, the second nymphal stage.

Dorsal — Back; upper side; top.

Dorsoventrally flattened — The space between the dorsal and ventral surfaces is narrower than the distance between the two sides; flat like a pan cake.

Dusts — A dry pesticide formulation consisting of fine particles of talc or clay which are coated with an active ingredient.

Elbowed — Bent with a sharp angle approximately at 90-degrees.

Elytra — The first pair of wings typical of most beetles which are heavy, shield-like coverings,

Emulsifiable concentrate —A pesticide formulation composed of an active ingredient, solvent, and emulsifier which readily dissolves in water.

Endangered Species Act (ESA) — Regulates activities which can affect endangered and threatened animal and plant species.

Engorge — To fill with blood.

Entomology — The study of insects.

Entomophobia — Fear of insects.

Exoskeleton —The exterior shell.

Facet — The external covering of a single element of the compound eye.

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) — The law establishing tolerances and acceptable levels of certain pesticides in food.

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) — This is the most comprehensive low regulating pesticide use, registration, labeling, applicator training and certification, and enforcement.

Femur — The third leg segment between the trochanter and the tibia.

Festoons — In many hard ticks, the rectangular areas on the posterior edge of the abdomen.

Filiform — A form of insect antenna which typically consists of many segments and is long and thread-like.

Flowable — A liquid pesticide formulation composed of finely ground particles of the active ingredient which mix with water to form a suspension.

Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act (FACT) — This law requires private and commercial pesticide applicators to record the use of restricted-use pesticides.

Fontanelle — In some termites, a small pore on the front of the head.

Frass — Solid fecal material; wood fragments typically mixed with excrement produced by wood infesting insects.

Fumigant — A gas which, under proper conditions, readily penetrates all areas within a confined space and kills all life forms present.

Fungus — A “plant” which does not contain chlorophyll.

Furcula — In springtails, the fork-like structure attached to the tip of the abdomen.

Genal comb — In fleas, a row of very heavy spines projecting downward from the front part of the head.

Granules —A dry pesticide formulation consisting of particles, usually vermiculite, larger than those used for dusts, which are coated with an active ingredient.

Haltere — In flies (Diptera), the knob-like structure which aids in maintaining balance during flight and is attached to the metathorax in place of the second pair of wings.

Hastasetae — Spear-headed setae (hairs) usually found in clusters on dermestid beetle larvae,

Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA) —This law regulates the transportation of hazardous materials and pertains to very few pesticides.

Head — On insects, the first major body region composed of the eyes, antennae, and mouthparts.

Hypopharynx — In insect mouthparts, the tongue-like structure located in front of the labium and in the center of the other mouthparts.

Hypostome — In ticks, the tube located in the center of the mouthparts.

Inert ingredient — A component of a pesticide which aids in dissolving the active ingredient and facilitates its use.

Insect growth regulator (IGR) — Synthetic chemical analogous to insect juvenile hormones which regulate growth and development in insects.

Instar — The stage between molts.

Integrated pest management (IPM) — A decision-making process that anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term solutions. Components of on IPM program may include proper waste management, structural repair, maintenance, biological and mechanical control techniques, and pesticide application.

Labium — In insect mouthparts, the lower lip located behind the other mouthparts.

Labrum — In insect mouthparts, the upper lip located above the mandibles.

Larva (-ae) — The developmental stages between the egg and pupa in insects with complete metamorphosis. In mites and ticks, the six-legged stage between the egg and nymph.

Larvacide — An insecticide which targets the larval stage of insects with complete metamorphosis.

Mandible — In insect mouthparts, the jaw.

Maxilla (-ae) — In insect mouthparts, the typically jaw-like structure which may have a palp; located behind the mandible.

Mesothorax — The second and middle segment of the insect thorax and the point of attachment for the second pair of legs and the first pair of wings.

Metamorphosis — The development and change an arthropod undergoes from the egg to adult.

Metathorax — The third and last segment of the insect thorax and the point of attachment for the third pair of legs and second pair of wings.

Microencapsulated — A pesticide formulation which consists of a liquid or dry active ingredient surrounded by a plastic coating which gradually releases the active ingredient.

Naiad — The developmental stages between the egg and adult in aquatic insects with simple metamorphosis.

Nematodes — Unsegmented soil-inhabiting worms which are parasitic on plants and animals.

National Pest Management Association (NPMA) — An international/national member-association of pest control operators.

Nymph — The developmental stages between the egg and adult in terrestrial insects with simple metamorphosis. In ticks and mites, the eight-legged stage between the larva and adult.

Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) —A law which requires employers to provide a reasonably safe work environment and inform employees of potential health hazards associated with their jobs.

Ocellus (-i) —A small, simple eye composed of a single facet or lens.

Ootheca (-ae) — The purse-shaped egg capsule common in cockroaches.

Ovipositor — In some insects, a long projection which extends from the tip of the abdomen and is used to lay eggs.

Parasite — An organism which lives in or on another organism from which it derives food and shelter.

Pathogenic — The ability of a microorganism to cause disease.

Pedicel — The waist or small segment in ants and some bees and wasps; in ants, it is composed of one or two segments (nodes); in insects, the second antennal segment.

Pheromone — A chemical usually excreted outside the body and used for communication within a species.

Pincers — In some insects, the forceps structure at the p of the abdomen.

Predator — An organism which captures, kills, and eats its prey for food.

Pretarsus (-i) — The sixth and last leg segment located after the tarsus and usually consisting of one or two claws and a pad-like structure.

Proboscis — In some arthropods, the long extension of the mouthparts used for sucking food; a beak.

Pro-leg — Paired abdominal processes used for locomotion by butterfly and moth larvae (caterpillars) and few other insect larvae.

Pronotal comb — In fleas, the stout spines located along the posterior margin of the first body segment behind the head.

Pronotum —The top or dorsal plate on the prothorax.

Prothorax — The first segment of the insect thorax.

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