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Special Sewing Techniques (2)

Putting in Linings

A lining is a layer of fabric attached to the inside of a garment. It’s constructed separately from the outer garment and then joined at one or more major seams. A lining gives an attractive appearance to the inside of a garment and helps prevent the outer fabric from stretching and wrinkling. Some coat linings are backed with a napped finish or insulation for added warmth. A lining may have a center back pleat to allow for movement.

Lining fabrics are firmly woven and have a smooth, slippery texture. To choose a lining fabric, always drape the garment fabric over the lining fabric. Check to see how the two fabrics look and feel together.

• Is the lining too soft or too crisp for the shape you want?

• Does the color show through or change the color of the outer fabric?

• Do the two fabrics have compatible fiber content?

• Can both fabrics be cleaned in the same manner?

• Do they require pressing?

---1 A lining gives support to a garment and adds a finished look.

---2 Hemming the Lining: Lining Hemmed Separately; Attaching Lining to Hem

CUTTING and STITCHING

Some linings are cut from the same pattern pieces as the outer fabric. A coat or jacket pattern, however, might have separate pattern pieces for lining.

Follow the pattern guide sheet to stitch the lining pieces together. Seam finishes aren't needed on the outer fabric or the lining unless the fabric ravels easily. Use machine or hand stitching to attach the lining to the garment along the facing or the waistline seam.

HEMMING

Some linings are hemmed separately; others are sewn to the garment. Coat, skirt, and dress linings are usually hemmed separately.

Make the lining hem ½ to 1 ” (1.3 to 2.5 cm) shorter than the outer garment. (See "Putting in Hems".) For coats, use French tacks to hold the hems together at the seam lines.

Jacket, sleeve, and pant linings are usually attached to the garment hem, as described here.

1. Match the folded hem edges of the lining and garment.

2. Pin the folded edge of the lining at least ½” (1.3 cm) above the garment edge, creating a small tuck that allows for movement.

3. Slip-stitch the edge of the lining to the garment hem.

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Sewing Collars

There are several different collar styles. Four collar styles are basic.

• Flat collar. Lies flat against the garment. Both upper and lower collars are cut from the same pattern piece.

• Rolled collar. Stands up at the back of the neck and then turns down to create a rolled edge around the neck. It can be cut with a one-piece upper collar and a two-piece under collar that is slightly smaller.

Another way is to cut the entire collar as one piece and fold it at the outer edge.

• Shirt collar. Has a separate stand, or band, that attaches the collar to the neckline.

• Standing collar. Forms a band that stands straight up or folds over to create a turtleneck.

Because a collar is close to your face and attracts attention, it should be well made and carefully pressed. The collar should have the following qualities: circles the neck smoothly with out rippling; has front points or curves with identical shape; and has an under collar that doesn't show along the edge. A rolled collar and a shirt collar should cover the neck seam in back.

Interfacing gives collars added shape and sup port. It’s usually stitched or fused to the under collar. If the outer fabric is lightweight, however, the interfacing can be stitched to the upper collar to prevent the seam allowances from showing.

To make a collar, construct it first and then attach it to the garment.

Types of Collars: Flat; Rolled; Standing; Shirt

Trimming and Grading Seam Allowances

Turning the Collar Stitching the Folded Edge; Attaching a Collar Band; Basting Collar in Place; Attaching Collar to Neckline; Stitching Neck Seam

CONSTRUCTING THE COLLAR

To construct a collar, first cut out the collar and any facings. The upper and under collar may be cut from the same or separate pattern pieces. Some collars are cut from one piece of fabric and folded lengthwise. After cutting, follow these steps:

1. Stitch or fuse the interfacing to the wrong side of the under collar. For a one-piece collar, catchstitch the interfacing along the fold line if the interfacing hasn't been fused. Stitch the center back seam of the under collar, if necessary. Press the seam open and trim.

2. Pin the collar sections with right sides together. Follow the pattern guide sheet for specific directions.

3. Stitch the outer seam of the collar. Strengthen the corners or points with short reinforcement stitches.

4. Trim and grade the seam allowances. Trim the corners close to the stitching for crisp, sharp points. Clip or notch curved areas. Press the seam open, using a point presser.

5. Turn the collar to the right side.

Gently pull out the points. (To prevent poking a hole in the fabric, don't push the points out with scissors.)

6. Press the outer seam, rolling slightly to the collar's underside.

7. Understitch the under collar to the seam allowances to help prevent it from showing at the edge, or topstitch around the edge of the collar.

For a shirt collar, stitch the collar band to the upper collar and the under collar at the inner edge. Trim, grade, clip, notch, and press the seams.

ATTACHING THE COLLAR

A collar may be stitched to a garment with no facing, a partial neckline facing, or complete facing. Use the directions in your pattern guide sheet. The following steps are basic:

Collar without Facing: This method is used for shirt collars and standing collars.

1. Stay-stitch the garment neckline and clip.

2. Pin the under collar or band to the neckline, right sides together, matching all markings.

3. Stitch the seam, trim, and clip. Press the seam toward the collar.

4. Turn in the seam allowance of the upper collar or band. Press. Trim the seam allowance to 1/4 ” (6 mm).

5. Pin the folded edge over the neckline seam.

Machine-stitch close to the edge, or slip stitch by hand.

Collar with Partial Facing

This method is used for flat and rolled collars.

1. Stay-stitch the garment neckline and clip.

2. Pin the collar to the neckline, matching notches and markings.

3. Machine-baste the collar to the neck edge between the front openings and shoulder markings. Machine-baste the under collar only to the back neck edge between shoulder markings.

4. Pin the front facings to the neckline, with right sides together. Match all the markings. Clip the neck edges through all layers at both shoulder markings.

5. Stitch the neck seam as basted, being careful not to catch the free edge of the collar back.

Trim, grade, and clip the seam allowances.

6. Turn the facing to the inside and press.

7. Understitch the facing to the neckline seam allowances. Omit under-stitching if collar will be worn open.

8. Turn under 5/8 ” (1.5 cm) on the raw edge of the collar back. Press. Trim to 1/4 ” (6 mm).

9. Slip-stitch the folded edge of the collar over the back neck seam. Tack the facing to the shoulder seam allowances.

---Turning Collar Edge Under

Serging Tips: Collar

Use this method for a collar with a partial or full neckline facing.

1. Follow Steps 1 to 5 for "Collar with Neckline Facing" to prepare facing, baste the collar to the neckline, and pin the facing to the neckline.

2. Serge the neckline seam.

3. Follow Steps 7 to 9 to turn, under stitch, and tack the facing.

Collar with Neckline Facing

--- Basting Collar to Neck Edge

--- Stitching Neckline Seam

--- Understitching and Tacking

1. Stitch facing sections together. Trim and press the seams. Finish the outer, unnotched edge of the facing.

2. Stay-stitch the garment neckline and clip.

3. Pin the collar to the neckline, matching notches and markings.

4. Machine-baste the collar to the neck edge.

5. Pin the facing to the neckline, with right sides together. Match markings and seam lines.

6. Stitch the neckline seam. Trim, grade, and clip seam allowances.

7. Turn the facing to the inside and press.

8. Understitch the facing to the neckline seam allowances. If the collar will be worn open, understitch only the back facing.

9. Tack the edge of the facing to the shoulder seam allowances.

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Sewing Sleeves

Since sleeves are so different, they are sewn with varied techniques. Sleeves can be finished at the bottom edge with a hem, facing, casing, or cuff. There are three basic sleeve styles.

• Set-in sleeve. Joined to a garment by an armhole seam that circles the arm near the shoulder.

• Raglan sleeve. Has a front and back diagonal seam that extends from the neckline to the underarm.

• Kimono sleeve. Cut in one piece with the front and back of the garment.

Sleeve Styles : Set-In; Raglan Kimono

Stitching Open; Sleeve to Garment

SET-IN SLEEVE

Although it's the most common sleeve style, a set-in sleeve is also the most difficult to sew. A set-in sleeve nearly always measures more than the armhole that holds it. With extra fullness, the sleeve fits well over the top curve of the arm and allows movement.

Some set-in sleeves are very full across the cap, or top, of the sleeve. This fullness must be eased into the seam without any gathers or puckers.

Other sleeves, on a tailored shirt, For example, have a short sleeve cap that is only slightly larger than the armhole.

The two techniques for sewing a set-in sleeve are the open-sleeve and the closed-sleeve methods.

----Stitching Continuous Underarm Seam

Open-Sleeve Method

The open-sleeve method is fast and easy but can only be used for sleeves that need little easing.

Tailored shirts, sports shirts, and shirts with dropped shoulders are examples.

With this method, the sleeve is first stitched to the armhole. Then the side and underarm seams are stitched in one continuous seam. Because the sleeve and garment seams remain open while the sleeve is attached, this method is also called the flat construction method. Follow these steps:

1. Match the sleeve to the garment, right sides together, and pin.

2. Stitch the seam with the sleeve side up. Ease in any fullness with your fingers as you sew.

3. Stitch a second row of stitching 3/8 ” (1cm) from the outer edge. Trim close to the stitching. Press the seam allowances toward the garment. Alternatives: topstitch on the outside of the garment 1/4 to 3/8 ” (6 to 9mm) from the seam on the body side, or serge to finish the seam.

4. Match and pin the side seam and underarm sleeve seam.

5. Stitch the seam from the bottom of the garment to the end of the sleeve in one continuous line of stitching. Press the seams open. Alternatives: trim the seam allowances and zigzag together, or serge the seam.

--- Pinning and Adjusting Fullness

Pinning and Adjusting Fullness

Stitching Sleeve to Armhole

Closed-Sleeve Method

Use the closed-sleeve method for sleeves with extra fullness across the sleeve cap. With this method, the underarm seam of the sleeve and the side seam of the garment are first stitched separately. Then the sleeve is attached to the armhole.

Because the sleeve is completed before stitching to the armhole, this method is also called the unit method of construction. Follow the directions in your pattern guide sheet. These are the basic steps:

1. Using about 8 stitches per ” (3 mm in length), machine-baste close to the 5/8 ” (1.5-cm) seam line within the seam allowance. Stitch around the top of the sleeve between the notches. If the sleeve cap is full, the pattern guide sheet will recommend a second row of machine basting 3/8 ” (1 cm) from the outer edge.

2. Stitch the underarm seam of the sleeve, and stitch the garment side seam separately. Press seams open.

3. Pull up the bobbin thread ends of the machine basting until the sleeve cap fits the armhole. Adjust the fullness evenly between the notches.

4. Turn the garment wrong side out. Turn the sleeve right side out and slip it inside the armhole.

5. Pin the sleeve to the garment, with right sides together. Match the underarm seams, shoulder markings, and notches. Adjust the fullness. Place pins at right angles to the seam line so they can be easily removed as you sew.

6. Stitch the sleeve to the armhole with the sleeve side up.

This allows you to control fullness and prevents tucks or puckers from forming.

7. Reinforce the arm hole seam with a second row of stitches 3/8 ” (1cm) from the outer edge. Trim close to the stitching or serge to finish the seam. Some armhole seams are reinforced only in the underarm section. Stitch from notch to notch.

8. Press the seam allowances together from the sleeve side, using the side of the iron. Don’t press the seam from the right side of the garment. An armhole seam is sup-posed to be gently curved. Turn the seam allowances toward the sleeve.

RAGLAN SLEEVE

A raglan sleeve is loose fitting and comfortable to wear. A shoulder dart or seam shapes the sleeve over the shoulder area. Follow these steps to make this sleeve:

1. Stitch the shoulder dart or seam. Slash and press open.

2. Pin the diagonal seams of the sleeve to the garment, with right sides together. Match notches, markings, and underarm seams.

3. Stitch the seams.

4. Reinforce the underarm section between the notches by stitching again, 3/8 ” (1 cm) from the outer edge, or serge to finish the seam.

5. Clip at the end of the second row of stitching.

Trim the underarm seams. Press the seams open between notches and neckline.

6. Stitch the underarm seam of the sleeve and side seam, and press open.

Alternatives: trim the seam allowances and zigzag together, or serge the underarm seam of the sleeve and side seam.

Pressing Seam Allowances

Dart in a Raglan Sleeve

Stitching Diagonal Seams

Stitching Underarm Seams

Serging Tips: Sleeves: For sweatshirts and similar sportswear knit garments, use the two-thread flat lock or three-thread, mock, flatlock stitch to join the sleeve to the garment.

(See Steps 3 and 4 for the "Raglan Sleeve.") Use the three-thread or four thread serger stitch to serge the under arm seam.

KIMONO SLEEVE

This is the easiest sleeve for a beginner because it's simply an extension of the garment front and back.

Here's the procedure.

1. Stitch the shoulder seam, right sides together. Press open.

2. Stitch the underarm seam.

3. Reinforce the underarm seam with a second row of stitching 3/8 ” (1 cm) from the outer edge. To give the seam extra strength, sew a piece of seam tape over the curved underarm seam, stitching through all layers.

4. Clip the curve of the seam, but don't clip the seam tape. Press the seam open, or trim the seam and zigzag the seam allowances together. You can also serge to finish the seam.

--- Stitching a Kimono Sleeve

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Sewing Cuffs

Cuffs give a tailored finish to the end of a sleeve. They have three basic styles: fold-up, band, and buttoned. Some cuffs are interfaced. Follow your pattern guide sheet and the information on interfacings.

Fold-Up Cuff Band Cuff Buttoned Cuff

FOLD-UP CUFF

A fold-up cuff is actually a deep hem at the bottom of a sleeve or pant leg, but it's folded to the right side of the garment. You can create this cuff with the following procedure:

1. Finish the lower edge of the fabric with a zigzag, hemmed, or bound finish. (See the seam finishes)

2. Turn the cuff to the inside along the fold line and pin.

3. Hem by hand or use machine stitching.

4. Turn the lower edge of the garment to the right side along the hemline to form a cuff.

5. Tack or stitch-in-the-ditch to hold the cuff in place at each seam.

BAND CUFF

A band cuff has no side opening, so it must be large enough for your hand to slip through easily.

Follow these steps to make the cuff:

1. Interface the cuff, if desired.

2. Fold the unnotched seam allowance of the cuff to the inside and press. Trim the seam allowance to 1/4 ” (6 mm).

3. Pin the notched edge of the cuff to the bottom edge of the sleeve, right sides together, matching markings. Adjust fullness.

4. Stitch the seam with the sleeve side up. Trim, grade, and press the seam allowances toward the cuff.

5. Stitch the sleeve and cuff seams. Trim the cuff and press the seams open.

6. Fold the cuff in half along the fold line, wrong sides together.

7. Pin the folded edge of the cuff over the seam line.

Topstitch from the right side or slip-stitch the edge in place.

-- Hemming a Fold-Up Cuff

Stitching Band to Sleeve

Tacking Fold-Up Cuff

Stitching Sleeve and Cuff Seam

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BUTTONED CUFF

A buttoned cuff fits snugly around the wrist and fastens with a button or other fastener. There must be an opening in the sleeve to allow the cuff to slide over the hand. The opening, called a placket, is sewn before attaching the cuff.

Sewing Sleeve Plackets: A placket is a slit at the wrist, neck, or waist of a garment to make it easier to put on and take off.

The three most common sleeve plackets are faced, continuous lap, and banded plackets. The pattern guide sheet gives complete directions for making the placket for a particular garment. Basic procedures are covered here.

Faced Placket

A faced placket forms a split opening that can be used on a sleeve or neckline.

1. Finish the edge of the placket facing.

2. Center the placket over the opening, with right sides together.

--- Stitching Cuff in Place

3. Stitch along the stitching lines, using short reinforcement stitches. Take one small stitch across the point.

4. Slash carefully up to the point.

5. Turn the facing to the inside and press.

Sleeve Plackets: Faced Continuous Lap Banded

Continuous Lap Placket

A continuous lap is a narrow binding that overlaps at the opening. It can be used on sleeves or the waistline of pants, skirts, and shorts.

1. Stay-stitch the placket opening along the stitching lines, using reinforcement stitches.

Take one small stitch across the point.

2. Slash carefully up to the point.

-- Stitching a Faced Placket; Completed Faced Placket; Stitching Placket Opening

---

Open the slash until the line of stitching is almost straight.

3. Cut a fabric strip 1½” wide (3.8 cm) and twice the length of the slash. Pin the fabric strip to the slashed edge, matching the right side of the strip to the wrong side of the sleeve so that the stitching line is 1/4 ” (6 mm) from the edge of the strip. The fabric edges won’t match.

4. Stitch along the first row of stitching. Press the seam allowances toward the fabric strip.

5. Turn in the raw edge of the fabric strip 1/4 ” (6 mm) and pin over the seam. Topstitch in place.

6. Press the front portion of the lap to the inside and baste in place across the lower edge of the opening.

Banded Placket

A banded placket gives a tailored finish to a sleeve. It’s similar to the neckline placket used on a shirtfront. The placket can be one or two pieces.

1. Reinforce the opening with stitching.

2. Slash and clip into the corners.

3. Stitch under the lap to the back edge of the opening, following directions in the guide sheet.

4. Stitch the overlap to the front edge of the opening.

5. Overlap the placket and stitch at the upper edge. Stitch through all thicknesses across the point and around the edges.

Attaching Fabric Strip; Topstitching Fabric Strip; Opening for Banded: Placket

Adding the Underlap; Adding the Overlap; Completing the Lap; Completing the Overlap; Sewing Buttoned Cuff

Some buttoned cuffs are cut in one piece and folded lengthwise. Others are cut in two pieces and stitched along the outer edge. Follow these steps to sew the cuffs:

1. Complete the sleeve opening.

2. Interface the cuff, if desired.

3. Fold the long, unnotched edge of the cuff to the inside and press. Trim to 1/4 ” (6 mm).

4. Stitch the ends of the cuff, right sides together, or stitch the cuff sections together along the outer edge. Trim and grade the seams and press. Turn the cuff to the right side.

5. Pin the cuff to the gathered sleeve edge, right sides together, matching notches and markings. For a shirtsleeve, the cuff edges will be even with the placket edges. For other sleeve openings, the cuff will extend beyond the back edge of the placket.

6. Stitch the seam. Trim, grade, and clip the seam allowances. Press the seam allowances toward the cuff.

7. Place the folded edge of the cuff over the seam and extension end. Topstitch in place from the right side. If desired, topstitch the outer edge of the cuff.

8. Make machine buttonholes and attach the buttons.

Folding Cuff to Inside; Stitching the Cuff Seam; Adding Button and Buttonhole.

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